1. Repetition: the aggression is repeated compulsively.
Obsessive ideation: the perpetrators are obsessed with ideas that
justify their aggression and underlie missions of ethnic cleansing, for
instance that all Westerners, or all Muslims, or all Jews, or all Tutsis
3. Perseveration: circumstances have no impact on the
perpetrator’s behaviour, who perseveres even if the action is
4. Diminished affective reactivity: the perpetrator has no emotional affect.
Hyperarousal: the elation experienced by the perpetrator is a high
induced by repetition, and a function of the number of victims.
6. Intact language, memory and problem-solving skills: the syndrome has no impact on higher cognitive abilities.
7. Rapid habituation: the perpetrator becomes desensitised to the violence.
8. Compartmentalisation: the violence can take place in parallel to an ordinary, affectionate family life.
Environmental dependency: the context, especially identification with a
group and obedience to an authority, determines what actions are
10. Group contagion: belonging to the group enables the
action, each member mapping his behaviour on the other. Fried’s
assumption was that all these ways of behaving had underlying
neurophysiological causes that were worth investigating.
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