Saturday, 12 October 2019

If you live in the Global South, you know that the West is not the centre of the world

What was the genesis of the idea of this book?
Fatima Bhutto: If you live in the Global South, as inundated as we are with Western culture and as much as we enjoy it, you also know that the West is not the centre of the world. We live in a multi-polar world -- there are exciting cultural products coming out of India, Pakistan, Japan, Korea, Egypt, Turkey and there always have been. I’m tired of this idea that the rest of the world doesn’t exist and I wanted to investigate the frontiers that Asian powers are breaking through. I’m a great believer in the future of our continent and I wanted to investigate not just the fascinating possibilities of our cultural power but also the histories and politics of our products so far.

165pp, Rs 499; Aleph

In New Kings of the World, you write, “This is a book about these new arbiters of mass culture arising from the East. Carefully packaging not-always-secular modernity with traditional values in urbanized settings, they have created a new global pop culture that can be easily consumed, especially by the many millions coming late to the modern world and still negotiating its overwhelming challenges...” While this is largely true, how does it explain the great popularity of SRK in places like Germany, where he is a huge star? (You allude to it too by mentioning those 10 German ladies, who follow SRK around.)

Our culture, whether that is Pakistan or India, are cultures of community, of intense expressions of joy and sorrow. We are, as a people, closely bound and I think that’s what these countries -- which consider themselves tightly wound and buttoned up emotionally -- really respond to in Bollywood or Turkish Dizi. It gives them a space as well as the permission to express themselves emotionally. People told me repeatedly that they felt able to cry, to express pain, to have an outlet for their feelings only through exposure to Bollywood and Dizi.

How did you get access to Shah Rukh Khan?
I wrote to Red Chilies Entertainment and received a response from his team.

I’m surprised that you left out Japan. Especially for GenZ -- very young people in their teens and early 20s -- Japan is THE Mecca and anime and Manga reign supreme. Was this a conscious decision? Why did you narrow the book down to the Indians, Turks and South Koreans?
The book had to be kept to a word limit. The remit was not to write a full exploration of global culture but to focus on the most updated iterations of those powers presenting themselves as New Kings. I would have loved to write about Japan and am an admirer of Japanese culture, old and new, but chose to focus on Korea because Kpop truly is a transnational phenomenon but also because it shares similarities with India and Turkey as they all liberalise their economies at the same time and strive to connect notions of modernity and tradition in expansive ways. Plus, the story of Kpop’s origins are not as well known and are particularly strange and fascinating.

You write, “Bollywood’s flair, fantasy, and spectacle have always been situated within the boundaries of conservative, traditional values and as such have long reached global audiences...” What is different about Bollywood’s reach today? South American interest is new but the countries of the former USSR, Africa and the Middle East were always interested in Hindi films.
Yes you’re right; Bollywood has always made inroads to Africa and the Middle East. I chose Peru because it doesn’t share anything that connects the other parts of the world to India. For example, India and Egypt have great connections through leaders like Gamal Abdul Nasser and Jawaharlal Nehru and the Non-Aligned Movement. Their cinema industries produce films that are similar in terms of the high drama they contain. With African countries like Uganda or Nigeria, you have a lot of Indian trade and migration; many families settled there for decades. But Peru has no bilateral history with India, trade ventures are fairly new and the number of Indians settled there is tiny. I was looking particularly at how globalisation and the betrayal of globalisation -- namely that everyone would be lifted on the rising tide of opportunity and access -- is creating a new audience for Bollywood in the Global South.

The Peruvian section is absolutely fascinating with excellent insights on how indigenous people love SRK because they think he looks like them, and how they feel empowered just by the sight of brown people leading affluent lives in Hindi films... Why did you chose Peru instead of the other South American countries where Bollywood is popular.
Thank you! I chose it because I was curious about what it was that would draw this country with almost no ties to India towards its films. I think the issues of race and class and neoliberalism also came together in a perfect storm in Peru, which is what made it so fascinating to me. It’s a beautiful country and I was so touched by all the people I met there, how their aspirations and dreams and struggles connected them to a far away people across oceans and borders. This book was a great reminder to me how open we are to other cultures, to other people, how we have always been willing and enthusiastic about stretching across our own imaginations to hear about strangers and learn new stories. Try as forces might to contain us within our national borders and restrict our imaginations to our immediate confines, they fail. People want to be a part of the world. We are drawn instinctively to the idea that we are all connected, no matter nationality, creed or ethnicity.

While Bollywood is familiar territory, and Turkey isn’t culturally THAT alien, South Korea really is different. You’ve done a lot of reportage and the reader begins to understand how South Korea and especially K-pop works. How difficult was it to immerse yourself in the culture and to understand the South Korean context?
Korea was the country I had the least familiarity with and it required a lot of research and time but part of what was enjoyable about writing New Kings was how much I learned. I began my career as a non-fiction writer and as someone interested in people, I was eager to immerse myself. I read widely, I went to Korea and talked to everyone -- economists, writers, music executives, song writers, professors, singers, fans and more. It was difficult but fascinating.

Towards the end of the South Korean section you mention Chinese global cultural aspirations. “By 2017, Warner Music’s Chief Executive for International and Global Services had predicted that artists will want to break into China the way that they once sought to conquer America.” Reports suggest that Aamir Khan is the biggest international super star there and China already seems like Bollywood’s huge new territory. What, in your view, would be the challenges that China could present for Hindi films?
I think the greatest question is whether Indian films will continue to test barriers with works like Gully Boy which are experimental, original and watchable by the world or whether they will look inward to the point when their films are only palatable to a local audience. If they do the latter, then China will pose a real creative challenge. If they do the former then it will be exciting to see how the region, whether China or otherwise, works to keep pace.

Wednesday, 25 September 2019

French castle owner wants to grow organic food that everyone can afford

Valentine de Ganay gestures at a field that appears to be completely overrun with weeds. “It looks like a total mess. It looks like 100 per cent weeds, which it is,” she says, pointing out the window of her four-wheel drive.

“But we are not just going to hammer them on the head or plough the fields, we are going to sow crops in the weeds. We are working with nature.”

Ms de Ganay is leading an ambitious sustainable food production project to transform the 500 hectares of land that she and her family own in the Île-de-France region. As part of this, she has adopted conservation agriculture, a farming system that promotes maintaining a permanent soil cover and minimising soil disturbance through tillage.

Ms de Ganay was a writer and journalist but when her father, Jean-Louis, died in 2013, she began a new chapter. She studied to become an organic farmer and set out to rebuild the landscape around the family’s magnificent 17th century castle, Château de Courances. It was here that the 20-year-old Jacqueline Bouvier spent weekends with Ms de Ganay’s aristocratic ancestors during her year studying in Paris, well before becoming first lady of the US.

“Something new had to be invented,” says Ms de Ganay, who is elegant, straight-talking and bursting with ideas. “I decided I wanted to do the job — not because I was passionate about agriculture since I was a girl. Not at all. Sometimes you do something because you have a quite strong consciousness that if you don’t do it, nobody is going to do it. Or worse, that if you don’t do it, somebody else might.”

As Ms de Ganay learnt more about agriculture, she faced conflicting advice. “You had the apostles of these two chapels: the organic for whom the devil is chemicals but who allow themselves to plough the land and work the ground. And then you had conservation agriculture, those for whom the devil is to work the land but are not afraid to use a bit of herbicide on the weeds.”

Ms de Ganay uses both approaches at Courances. “Either through naivety or pretension, I am doing something very ambitious,” she laughs.

“A big part of the project is reflecting on our environmental, social and territorial responsibility, and developing a way of farming that is better for the environment because it reduces energy consumption and is better for people’s health,” says Bruno Saillet, who works on the organic conservation project.

Organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic chemicals such as pesticides. It has been defined by a European regulation since 1991, which harmonised organic certification across the bloc.

Subsidies from both France and Europe have played an important part in helping farmers such as Ms de Ganay to finance the shift to organic. “Physically the place was a mess and financially it was a disaster . . . If I hadn’t had subsidies, considering the ruin that this farm was, I wouldn’t have been able to do anything,” she says.

So far, Ms de Ganay has received about €60,000 in European and regional subsidies. The kitchen garden has also benefited from being part of the World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms, a global scheme that links volunteers with organic farmers.

France is the EU’s largest agricultural producer. Last year a record number of French farms switched to organic production. It added 5,000 organic farms in 2018, ahead of previous highs of 4,200 in both 2016 and 2017, according to the Agence Bio, the country’s organic food agency. This increased the number of organic farms in France to 9.5 per cent of all farms, behind a government target of 15 per cent by 2022.

 This switch to organic farming is partly driven by increasing demand for organic food as consumers seek healthier and more sustainable options.

Ms de Ganay has also embarked on an agroforestry initiative to accelerate the restoration of the soil, which involved planting more than 1,800 trees. The ambition is to convert the entire area to organic farming for crops using the principles of conservation agriculture.

Ms de Ganay is inspired by Guy Singh-Watson, a British farmer who created Riverford Organic Farmers, a farming and vegetable-box delivery company. Like Mr Singh-Watson, she wants to shorten the distance from farm to table.

The château’s 2.8-hectare walled garden was certified as organic in 2015. Its fruit and vegetables are sold through a farm shop in the village of Courances, as well as in a local outlet and via Tomato & Co, a digital platform that connects organic producers with restaurants and individual customers.

“The whole challenge with organic food is that it shouldn’t just be for an elite,” she says. “I want it to be top quality but available to everyone . . . Organic food should be fresh, healthy, probably more expensive than the rubbish you get in the supermarket, but not inaccessible. And the government needs to get involved to help lower the prices.”

Looking ahead, Ms de Ganay is determined that the combination of organic and conservation agriculture at Courances acts as a model for other farms to help build a more sustainable future.

“I wouldn’t do this job if I didn’t believe that organic was not the solution for the world,” she says. “Every country should get back its alimentary autonomy.”